NumPy is an actively used library created in 1995. NumPy (pronounced (NUM-py) or sometimes (NUM-pee)) is a library for the Python programming language, adding support for large, multi-dimensional arrays and matrices, along with a large collection of high-level mathematical functions to operate on these arrays. The ancestor of NumPy, Numeric, was originally created by Jim Hugunin with contributions from several other developers. In 2005, Travis Oliphant created NumPy by incorporating features of the competing Numarray into Numeric, with extensive modifications. Read more on Wikipedia...

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### Example code from Wikipedia:

```>>> # # # Pure iterative Python # # #
>>> points = [[9,2,8],[4,7,2],[3,4,4],[5,6,9],[5,0,7],[8,2,7],[0,3,2],[7,3,0],[6,1,1],[2,9,6]]
>>> qPoint = [4,5,3]
>>> minIdx = -1
>>> minDist = -1
>>> for idx, point in enumerate(points):  # iterate over all points
dist = sum([(dp-dq)**2 for dp,dq in zip(point,qPoint)])**0.5  # compute the euclidean distance for each point to q
if dist < minDist or minDist < 0:  # if necessary, update minimum distance and index of the corresponding point
minDist = dist
minIdx = idx

>>> print 'Nearest point to q: ', points[minIdx]
Nearest point to q:  [3, 4, 4]

>>> # # # Equivalent NumPy vectorization # # #
>>> import numpy as np
>>> points = np.array([[9,2,8],[4,7,2],[3,4,4],[5,6,9],[5,0,7],[8,2,7],[0,3,2],[7,3,0],[6,1,1],[2,9,6]])
>>> qPoint = np.array([4,5,3])
>>> minIdx = np.argmin(np.linalg.norm(points-qPoint,axis=1))  # compute all euclidean distances at once and return the index of the smallest one
>>> print 'Nearest point to q: ', points[minIdx]
Nearest point to q:  [3 4 4]```

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Last updated August 9th, 2020

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