Lisp Flavored Erlang, aka Lisp Flavored Erlang, is an actively used programming language created in 2008. Lisp Flavored Erlang (LFE) is a functional, concurrent, general-purpose programming language and Lisp dialect built on top of Core Erlang and the Erlang Virtual Machine (BEAM). LFE builds on top of Erlang in order to provide a Lisp syntax for writing distributed, fault-tolerant, soft real-time, non-stop applications. LFE also extends Erlang to support meta-programming with Lisp macros and an improved developer experience with a feature-rich REPL. Read more on Wikipedia...

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Example code from Linguist:

;; Copyright (c) 2013 Duncan McGreggor <>
;; Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
;; you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
;; You may obtain a copy of the License at
;; Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
;; distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
;; See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
;; limitations under the License.

;; File    : church.lfe
;; Author  : Duncan McGreggor
;; Purpose : Demonstrating church numerals from the lambda calculus

;; The code below was used to create the section of the user guide here:
;; Here is some example usage:
;; > (slurp '"church.lfe")
;; #(ok church)
;; > (zero)
;; #Fun<lfe_eval.10.53503600>
;; > (church->int1 (zero))
;; 0
;; > (church->int1 (three))
;; 3
;; > (church->int1 (five))
;; 5
;; > (church->int2 #'five/0)
;; 5
;; > (church->int2 (lambda () (get-church 25)))
;; 25

(defmodule church
  (export all))

(defun zero ()
  (lambda (s)
    (lambda (x) x)))

(defun one ()
  (lambda (s)
    (lambda (x)
      (funcall s x))))

(defun two ()
  (lambda (s)
    (lambda (x)
      (funcall s
        (funcall s x)))))

(defun three ()
  (lambda (s)
    (lambda (x)
      (funcall s
        (funcall s
          (funcall s x))))))

(defun four ()
  (lambda (s)
    (lambda (x)
      (funcall s
        (funcall s
          (funcall s
            (funcall s x)))))))

(defun five ()
  (get-church 5))

(defun int-successor (n)
  (+ n 1))

(defun church->int1 (church-numeral)
  Converts a called church numeral to an integer, e.g.:
  > (church->int1 (five))
    (funcall church-numeral #'int-successor/1) 0))

(defun church->int2 (church-numeral)
  Converts a non-called church numeral to an integer, e.g.:
  > (church->int2 #'five/0)
      (funcall church-numeral) #'int-successor/1) 0))

(defun church-successor (church-numeral)
  (lambda (s)
    (lambda (x)
      (funcall s
          (funcall church-numeral s) x)))))

(defun get-church (church-numeral count limit)
  (cond ((== count limit) church-numeral)
        ((/= count limit)
           (church-successor church-numeral)
           (+ 1 count)

(defun get-church (integer)
  (get-church (zero) 0 integer))

Example code from Wikipedia:

(defun parse-args (flag)
  "Given one or more command-line arguments, extract the passed values.

  For example, if the following was passed via the command line:

    $ erl -my-flag my-value-1 -my-flag my-value-2

  One could then extract it in an LFE program by calling this function:

    (let ((args (parse-args 'my-flag)))
  In this example, the value assigned to the arg variable would be a list
  containing the values my-value-1 and my-value-2."
  (let ((`#(ok ,data) (init:get_argument flag)))
    (lists:merge data)))

(defun get-pages ()
  "With no argument, assume 'url parameter was passed via command line."
  (let ((urls (parse-args 'url)))
    (get-pages urls)))

(defun get-pages (urls)
  "Start inets and make (potentially many) HTTP requests."
    (lambda (x)
      (get-page x)) urls))

(defun get-page (url)
  "Make a single HTTP request."
  (let* ((method 'get)
         (headers '())
         (request-data `#(,url ,headers))
         (http-options ())
         (request-options '(#(sync false))))
    (httpc:request method request-data http-options request-options)
      (`#(http #(,request-id #(error ,reason)))
       (io:format "Error: ~p~n" `(,reason)))
      (`#(http #(,request-id ,result))
       (io:format "Result: ~p~n" `(,result))))))

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Last updated August 9th, 2020

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