Elm is an actively used programming language created in 2012. Elm is a domain-specific programming language for declaratively creating web browser-based graphical user interfaces. Elm is purely functional, and is developed with emphasis on usability, performance, and robustness. It advertises "no runtime exceptions in practice," made possible by the Elm compiler's static type checking.. Read more on Wikipedia...

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Example code from the Hello World Collection:

-- Hello world in Elm

import Text

main = Text.plainText "Hello, world!"

Example code from Linguist:

main = asText (qsort [3,9,1,8,5,4,7])

qsort lst =
  case lst of
    x:xs -> qsort (filter ((>=)x) xs) ++ [x] ++ qsort (filter ((<)x) xs)
    [] -> []


QuickSort works as follows:
 - Choose a pivot element which be placed in the "middle" of the sorted list.
   In our case we are choosing the first element as the pivot.
 - Gather all of the elements less than the pivot (the first filter).
   We know that these must come before our pivot element in the sorted list.
   Note: ((>=)x) === (\y -> (>=) x y) === (\y -> x >= y)
 - Gather all of the elements greater than the pivot (the second filter).
   We know that these must come after our pivot element in the sorted list.
 - Run `qsort` on the lesser elements, producing a sorted list that contains
   only elements less than the pivot. Put these before the pivot.
 - Run `qsort` on the greater elements, producing a sorted list. Put these
   after the pivot.

Note that choosing a bad pivot can have bad effects. Take a sorted list with
N elements. The pivot will always be the lowest member, meaning that it does
not divide the list very evenly. The list of lessers has 0 elements
and the list of greaters has N-1 elemens. This means qsort will be called
N times, each call looking through the entire list. This means, in the worst
case, QuickSort will make N^2 comparisons.


Example code from Wikipedia:

-- This is a single line comment

{- This is a multi-line comment.
   It can span multiple lines.

{- It is possible to {- nest -} multi-line comments -}

-- Here we define a value named ''greeting''. The type is inferred as a String.
greeting =
    "Hello World!"

 -- It is best to add type annotations to top-level declarations.
hello : String
hello =
    "Hi there."

-- Functions are declared the same way, with arguments following the function name.
add x y =
    x + y

-- Again, it is best to add type annotations.
hypotenuse : Float -> Float -> Float
hypotenuse a b =
    sqrt (a^2 + b^2)

-- Functions are also curried; here we've curried the multiplication 
-- infix operator with a `2`
multiplyBy2 : number -> number
multiplyBy2 =
    (*) 2

-- If-expressions are used to branch on values
absoluteValue : number -> number
absoluteValue number =
    if number < 0 then negate number else number

 -- Records are used to hold values with named fields
book : { title : String, author : String, pages : Int }
book =
    { title = "Steppenwolf"
    , author = "Hesse"
    , pages = 237 

-- Record access is done with `.`
title : String
title =

-- Record access `.` can also be used as a function
author : String
author =
    .author book

-- We can create entirely new types with the `type` keyword.
-- The following value represents a binary tree.
type Tree a
    = Empty
    | Node a (Tree a) (Tree a)

-- It is possible to inspect these types with case-expressions.
depth : Tree a -> Int
depth tree =
    case tree of
        Empty ->

        Node value left right ->
            1 + max (depth left) (depth right)

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Last updated August 9th, 2020

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